Thurning
Union
composite postmill

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Thurning post windmill was built on top of and worked in conjunction with Thurning_watermill during the 1800s. From the 1826 auction details it would appear that each the mill was powering two sets of stones. Bryant's map of 1826 shows shows both mills and marks them as Union Mills, which would infer that they were either both powering the same machinery or that they worked as a pair.


A story goes that...
Originally two brothers built the mill as a windmill and watermill combined -
Union Mills but they then argued and fell out. One remained a miller and the other took to farming and he planted all the nearby trees in order to take the wind out of the mill's sails. Thus eventually the miller had to dismantle the windmill.


Thurning_watermill was worked as a Union Mill during the 1800s, whereby a small windmill (probably but not definitely a composite postmill) was erected on top of the watermill and the two were run together. From the 1826 auction details it would appear that mill, as a single entity, was powering four sets of stones, possibly two in the watermill building and two in the windmill above although it's also feasible that both could be geared to run independently. Bryant's map of 1826 shows shows both mills and marks them as Union Mills, which would also infer that they were either both powering the same machinery or that they worked as a pair within the same structure.
Unusually, the watermill was configured to work using a mainly wooden lineshaft system, rather than a conventional spurwheel system, which meant that it would have been much easier to connect it to a windmill's gearing


I was interested in the reference to Thurning Mill (East Anglian Magazine Nov. 1957), as at one time I was working with a man whose father had helped to run it. He told me that there used to be a small windmill on top of the watermill but that, as it was not very satisfactory it was later removed.
I see that in Kelly's Directory for 1883 there is the following entry under Thurning regarding the man in question:
Commercial - Sexton, John, Miller (wind).
B. F. Marriage, The Watermill, Pakenham, Bury St. Edmunds
East Anglian Magazine - January 1958


A story goes that...
Originally two brothers built the mill as a windmill but they then argued and fell out. One remained a miller and the other took to farming and he planted all the nearby trees in order to take the wind out of the mill's sails. Thus eventually the miller had to rebuild the mill as a watermill.


It would appear the windmill was erected c.1825 and was removed some time after 1861.

Thurning Union mill was of only three mills in Norfolk to use both water and wind power from the same site, the others being Burnham Overy Union and Little_Cressingham .


Bryant's map 1826
Bryant's map 1826
showing the windmill set above the watermill
Image reproduced with permission of Larks Press

Estate at THURNING
To be Sold by Auction By Mr. B. Barcham
At the Black Boys Inn, Aylsham On Monday 14 August 1826 at 3 o'c
Unless before disposed of by Private Contract

Lot 1. Messuage... in the occupation of Mr. Samuel Johnson, the proprietor.

Lot 2. A Water_Corn_Mill & Wind Mill, lately erected on the most improved construction & containing four pairs of stones & two flour dressers, with stable, cowhouse & other outhouses & 27 acres or thereabouts of Arable land, meadow, wood & ozier ground adjoining. Also a Messuage & garden at a short distance from the Mill. The buildings & part of the lands in this Lot are in the occupation of William Reynolds, tenant from year to year & Possession of the remainder may be had at Michaelmas next.
Apply to Mr. J. B. Jackson, of Cley near Holt, the Auctioneer at Sherringham or Copeman & Parmeter of Aylsham of whose office Maps of the Property may be inspected.
N.B. Purchasers may be accommodated with considerable portions of the purchase monies.
Norfolk Chronicle - 29th July, 5th & 12th August 1826


Estate at THURNING
To be Sold by Private Contract

Lot 1. Messuage... in the occupation of Mr. Samuel Johnson, the proprietor.

Lot 2. A Water_Corn_Mill & Wind Mill, lately erected on the most improved construction & containing four pairs of stones & two flour dressers, with stable, cowhouse & other outhouses & 27 acres or thereabouts of Arable land, meadow, wood & ozier ground adjoining. Also a Messuage & garden at a short distance from the Mill. The buildings & part of the lands in this Lot are in the occupation of William Reynolds, tenant from year to year & Possession of the remainder may be had at Michaelmas next.
Apply to Mr. J. B. Jackson, of Cley near Holt or Copeman & Parmeter of Aylsham of whose office Maps of the Property may be inspected.
N.B. Purchasers may be accommodated with considerable portions of the purchase monies.
Norfolk Chronicle - 2nd & 9th September 1826


Estate at THURNING
To be Sold by Private Contract
A Capital Messuage etc. ...
This Estate was in the possession of the late Mr. Samuel Johnson, the Proprietor for many years ...

Also a WATER_CORN_MILL & WINDMILL, lately erected on the most improved construction & containing four pair of Stones, two Flour Dressers, with stable, cowhouse & other outhouses & 27 acres or thereabouts of Arable land, Meadow, Wood & Ozier Ground adjoining. Also a Messuage & Garden at a short distance from the Mill.
The Buildings & part of the Lands in this Lot are in the occupation of William Reynolds & possession of the remainder may be had at Michaelmas next.
N.B. The above Estates are in Thurning which is in an adjoining parish to Melton Constable (except for about four acres being n Briston) & all the Tenants hold from year to year.
Apply to Mr. J. B. Jackson, of Cley near Holt or Copeman & Parmeter of Aylsham of whose office Maps of the Property may be inspected.
N.B. Purchasers may be accommodated with considerable portions of the purchase monies.
Norfolk Chronicle - 28th April, 12th May, 21st & 28th July & 4th August 1827


Estates at THURNING
To be Sold by Private Contract on very reasonable terms
A Capital Messuage etc. ...
This Estate was in the possession of the late Mr. Samuel Johnson, the Proprietor ...

Also a Water_Corn_Mill & Windmill, lately erected on the most improved construction & containing four pair of Stones, two Flour Dressers, with Stable, Cow house & other Outbuildings & 27 acres or thereabouts of Arable land, Meadow, Wood & Ozier Ground adjoining.
Also a Messuage & Garden at a short distance from the Mill. The Buildings & part of the Lands in this Lot are in the occupation of William Reynolds & possession of the remainder may be had at Michaelmas next ...
Apply to Mr. J. B. Jackson, of Cley near Holt or Copeman & Parmeter of Aylsham of whose office Maps of the Property may be inspected.
N.B. Purchasers may be accommodated with considerable portions of the purchase monies.
Norfolk Chronicle - 10th August 1828


Estates in THURNING etc.
To be Sold by Auction by B. Barcham At the Black Boys, Aylsham, on Monday 1st June 1829 at 3 o'c (Unless sooner Disposed of by Private Contract)
Lot. A Capital MESSUAGE ...
This Estate was in the possession of the late Mr. Samuel Johnson, the Proprietor for many years previous to his decease ...

Lot 2. A Water_Corn_Mill & Windmill, lately erected on the most improved construction & containing four pair of stones, two flour dressers, with stable, cow house & other outhouses & 27 acres or thereabouts of Arable land, Meadow, Wood & Ozier Ground adjoining.
Also the Messuage & Garden at a short distance from the Mill.
The Buildings & part of the Lands in this Lot are in the occupation of William Reynolds & possession of the remainder may be had at Michaelmas next.
N.B. Thew above Lots (1 - 4) are in Thurning which is an adjoining parish to Melton Constable (except about 4 four acres lying in Briston).
N.B. Purchasers may be accommodated with considerable portions of the purchase monies.
Norfolk Chronicle - 30th May
1829


Tithe Award 1845
Map, C. Burcham, Surveyor, Lynn 1843
Owner: Thomas Armes
Occupier: William Reynolds


 
No. 525: Water & Wind Mills & Premises
Pasture
0a. 0r. 21p .
Part of
7a. 3r. 23p.
9s. 3d. Vicar
4s. 7d. Impr.

Wiliam & Robert Reynolds. Thurning, millers.
Deed of Assignment 13 October 1856 for benefit of Creditors.

Norfolk Chronicle - 18th October 1856


To be Sold by Auction by Mr. J. J. Darken on Friday 26 July 1861 at the Feathers Hotel in Holt at 4 o'c. Lots 2 to 8
In BRISTON & THURNING
Lot 2. A Messuage or Dwelling House with productive Garden adjoining,
Watermill driving two pairs of stones, with large waterwheel in good repair & plentiful supply of water, Windmill, Cart Lodge, & other Outbuildings together with 30a. 1r. 19p. of Arable & Pasture LAND adjoining in the occupation of Chester Leman. This lot abuts upon Briston Common & land of James Gay, Esq. The Mills are capable of doing an extensive & lucrative business.
Freehold.
The above described property is offered for sale by the directions of the Trustees under the Will of Thomas Armes, decd.
Apply to Messrs. Wilkinson & Slann, Solrs. or the Auctioneers, Holt.
Norfolk Chronicle & Norfolk News - 13th July 1861


c.1825: Windmill erected on the top of Thurning Thurning watermill

Bryant's map 1826: Union Mills (wind & water)

1826: Samuel Johnson owner; William Reynolds, tenant miller

July 1826: Mill advertised for sale by auction along with watermill

September 1826: Mill advertised for sale by private contract in the occupation of William Reynolds

1827: Samuel Johnson died

April 1827: Mill advertised for sale by private contract in the occupation of William Reynolds

August 1828: Mill advertised for sale by private contract in the occupation of William Reynolds

Cary's atlas 1832: Union Mills

White's 1836: William Reynolds, miller

O.S. map 1838: Watermill

Census 1841:
William Reynolds  snr (50) b.Hindolveston, miller
Ann Reynolds (40) b.Weybourne
Mary Ann Reynolds (20) b.Thurning
Margaret Reynolds (18)
Jane Reynolds (16) b.Thurning
Robert Reynolds (15)
Edward Reynolds (12)
Samuel Reynolds (8)
Charlotte Reynolds (3) b.Thurning

Census 1841:
Thomas Paul (35) journeyman miller
Mary Paul (40)
Margaret Paul (10)

Tithe Award 1845: Owner: Thomas Armes; Occupier: William Reynolds

White's 1845: William Reynolds, miller

1846: William Reynolds

Census 1851:
William Reynolds snr (60) b.Hindolveston, miller & farmer 40 acres empl 1 jrnyman & 1 labr
Ann Reynolds (55) b.Weybourne
Mary Ann Reynolds (34) b.Thurning
Samuel Reynolds (20) b.Thurning
Henry Reynolds (17) b.Thurning, journeyman miller
Charlotte Reynolds (12) b.Thurning

Census 1851:
William Reynolds jnr (33) b.Thurning, miller
Elizabeth Reynolds (55) b.Wood Dalling
Esther Ann Reynolds (8) b.Briston, scholar
William Reynolds (6) b.Briston, scholar
Joseph Reynolds (6) b.Briston, scholar
Address: Near the Great Common

Norwich index of wills 1852: William Reynolds, miller

1853: William & Robert Reynolds

White's 1854: William Reynolds, corn miller

Craven's 1856: William & Robert Reynolds, millers

13th October 1856: William & Robert Reynolds - Deed of Assignment for the benefit of creditors

Census 1861:
William Reynolds jnr (42) b.Thurning, miller
Joseph Reynolds (14) b.Briston
Robert Reynolds (9) b.Briston

1861: Chester Leman

July 1861: Mill advertised for sale by auction along with watermill by Trustees of Thomas Armes


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